By JUSTIN BERGMAN, Associated Press Writer Mon May 14, 9:43 PM ET
UNITED NATIONS - Indigenous people are being pushed off their lands to
make way for an expansion of biofuel crops around the world, threatening
to destroy their cultures by forcing them into big cities, the head of a
U.N. panel said Monday.
Victoria Tauli-Corpuz, chair of the U.N. Permanent Forum on Indigenous
Issues, said some of the native people most at risk live in Indonesia
and Malaysia, which together produce 80 percent of the world's palm oil
— one of the crops used to make biofuels.
She said there are few statistics showing how many people are at risk of
losing their lands, but in one Indonesian province — West Kalimantan —
the U.N. has identified 5 million indigenous people who will likely be
displaced because of biofuel crop expansion.
"The speed with which this is happening we don't really realize in our
part of the world," Ida Nicolaisen, an expert in indigenous cultures and
member of the U.N. forum, said at a news conference. "Because the
technology we have today and the economic resources that are at stake
are so big, it happens overnight."
The Indonesian and Malaysian missions to the U.N. did not immediately
return calls seeking comment on the remarks.
Tauli-Corpuz said the forum will discuss the threat posed by biofuel
crop expansion during its annual, two-week meeting in New York, which
opened Monday with the blowing of a traditional bocina horn from the
Andes and a ceremonial dance by a group from India.
Biofuels, which are made from corn, palm oil, sugar cane and other
agricultural products, have been seen by many as a cleaner and cheaper
way to meet the world's soaring energy needs than with greenhouse-gas
emitting fossil fuels.
In its first major report on biofuels last week, however, the U.N.
warned that the benefits of the alternative energy source may be offset
by serious environmental problems and increased food prices for poor
people in the developing world.
Many biofuel crops, the report said, require the best land to grow,
diverting food crops and causing prices for staples like maize and sugar
to rise. They also demand large amounts of water and
environment-damaging chemical fertilizers, the report said.
The clearing of forests to make room for these new crops is putting at
particular risk the 60 million indigenous people who depend on forests
almost entirely for their survival, according to the U.N. Permanent
Forum on Indigenous Issues.
They are being forced to migrate to already overcrowded cities, where
many of them end up living in slums with poor housing and limited access
to services, Nicolaisen said.
Tauli-Corpuz said the forum is pushing the General Assembly to pass a
long-delayed declaration on indigenous rights, which she said will
protect native peoples from being pushed off their lands as the demand
for biofuel crops grows.
The declaration states that indigenous peoples have the right to their
own identity, culture and language, and to self-determination. It also
says governments should respect their rights to traditional lands and
resources, and that native peoples have the right to decide on any
development project in their community.
The U.N. Human Rights Council, based in Geneva, approved the declaration
last June and recommended that the 192-member General Assembly adopt it.
But the draft failed to make it out of the assembly's human rights
committee in November due to opposition from African countries who
argued it contradicted their national constitutions.
A handful of developed nations with large native populations — New
Zealand, Australia and Canada — also opposed the draft.
The U.S. abstained on the vote, but had signed a joint statement with
Australia and New Zealand last year calling the draft "fundamentally
The three countries said self-determination could threaten the
"territorial integrity" of U.N. member states, and the provisions on
lands and resources appeared to recognize indigenous rights to lands now
lawfully owned by other citizens.
The African countries have been negotiating on a series of amendments to
the draft, but Tauli-Corpuz urged the General Assembly to pass the
original declaration during its current session, which ends in September.